Glossary

Described in the glossary

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Agnosia

Difficulty recognizing through the use of diverse perceptual modalities (auditory, visual, somesthetic), although the deficit cannot be attributed to either a simple sensorial problem, a verbal expression deficit, or intellectual deterioration. Agnosia is usually restricted to one modality, while recognition is normal for the other sensorial modalities.

BÉRUBÉ, Louise. Terminologie de neuropsychologie et de neurologie du comportement, Montréal, Les Éditions de la Chenelière Inc.,1991, 176 p., p.33.

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Agrammatism

Speech behaviour that is acquired and stable, occurring after a motor aphasia has progressed and that is characterized by slowed delivery, reduced available vocabulary, a quantitative reduction and simplification of available syntactic structures, sentence brevity and finally, a tendency to make juxtapositions, elisions, and substitutions, specifically with grammatical monemes. Not to be confused with the tendency of certain depressed people to inconsistently express themselves using short unconnected sentences.

BÉRUBÉ, Louise. Terminologie de neuropsychologie et de neurologie du comportement, Montréal, Les Éditions de la Chenelière Inc.,1991, 176 p., p.62.

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Agraphia

The loss of writing ability that results from damage to language areas of the brain. The lost of writing ability after stroke is often incomplete, as man stroke survivors with agraphia can rapidly relearn to write some words or sentence.

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Anarthria

Disorder of speech, not of linguistic functioning, whereby there is a loss of ability to articulate speech following a lesion to the left frontal ascending gyrus and the fibres connecting it to Broca’s area.

Source BÉRUBÉ, Louise. Terminologie de neuropsychologie et de neurologie du comportement, Montréal, Les Éditions de la Chenelière Inc.,1991, 176 p., p.5

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Anosognosia

Unawareness or denial of a deficit accompanying a hemineglect syndrome. Denial of a motor deficit is encountered with right parietal lesions, while a left lesion may produce unawareness of an aphasic deficit. One may also encounter people who are unaware of their cognitive deficits.

Source BÉRUBÉ, Louise. Terminologie de neuropsychologie et de neurologie du comportement, Montréal, Les Éditions de la Chenelière Inc.,1991, 176 p., p.38.

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Aphasic logorrhea

Abundant and often accelerated speech delivery encountered at the beginning of the progression of certain forms of Wernicke’s aphasia.

Source BÉRUBÉ, Louise. Terminologie de neuropsychologie et de neurologie du comportement, Montréal, Les Éditions de la Chenelière Inc.,1991, 176 p., p.61.

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Dysarthria

Dysarthria is a motor speech disorder. The muscles of the mouth, face, and respiratory system may become weak, move slowly, or not move at all after a stroke or other brain injury. The type and severity of dysarthria depend on which area of the nervous system is affected.

A person with dysarthria may experience any of the following symptoms, depending on the extent and location of damage to the nervous system:

  • “Slurred” speech
  • Speaking softly or barely able to whisper
  • Slow rate of speech
  • Rapid rate of speech with a “mumbling” quality
  • Limited tongue, lip, and jaw movement
  • Abnormal intonation (rhythm) when speaking
  • Changes in vocal quality (“nasal” speech or sounding “stuffy”)
  • Hoarseness
  • Breathiness
  • Drooling or poor control of saliva
  • Chewing and swallowing difficulty

http://www.asha.org/public/speech/disorders/dysarthria.htm

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Executive functions

The term executive function describes a set of cognitive abilities that control and regulate other abilities and behaviors. Executive functions are necessary for goal-directed behavior. They include the ability to initiate and stop actions, to monitor and change behavior as needed, and to plan future behavior when faced with novel tasks and situations. Executive functions allow us to anticipate outcomes and adapt to changing situations. The ability to form concepts and think abstractly are often considered components of executive function.

http://www.minddisorders.com/Del-Fi/Executive-function.html#ixzz132EDCQDD

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Hemiplegia

Total or partial paralysis of half the body, usually due to cerebral damage.

Rehabdata and Center for International Rehabilitation Information and Exchange, Rotated Thesaurus, BLOUIN, Maurice, Caroline Bergeron et al. Dictionnaire de la réadaptation, tome 1 : termes techniques d’évaluation, Québec, Les Publications du Québec, 1995, 130 p., p. 37.

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Paraphasia

A condition in which a person hears and comprehends words but is unable to speak correctly. Incoherent words are substituted for intended words, thereby creating sentences that are unintelligible. Also called jargon aphasia, word salad.

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Prefontal  anomia

Difficulty recalling words due to a lesion to the left anterior frontal convexity of Broca’s area. The lack of words resembles Broca’s aphasia inasmuch as it is manifested by response delays or absences, and that it can be countered by oral sketches.

Source BÉRUBÉ, Louise. Terminologie de neuropsychologie et de neurologie du comportement, Montréal, Les Éditions de la Chenelière Inc.,1991, 176 p., p.72.